Weather plays a large role in how a house (and its components) performs and how much energy it consumes. Outdoor temperature and humidity affect the cooling or heating needs of the house. Solar radiation also can affect HVAC loads, both negatively and positively. If photovoltaic panels or solar thermal system is installed, the local solar radiation needs to be measured to determine their expected performance. Wind can play a large role on the infiltration in the house and would affect the performance a small wind turbine, if present. In short, weather affects all systems in the house and without knowing the outdoor weather conditions, it would be nearly impossible to determine if the systems in the house are behaving as expected. Therefore, having a small, on-site weather station is recommended for all field tests. If there are a number of homes in the same neighborhood or development involved in the same project, a single weather station may be sufficient.
Weather measurements for residential building science include: